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Club EvMed: Divergent evolutionary roots for posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms - Shared screen with speaker view
Joseph Graves Jr
22:21
WEIRD acronym really needs to be changed to WEIRD(IW), IW for “if white.”
Joseph Graves Jr
25:46
Is this in any way related to “just war” theory? Moral insults should be related to the degree that individuals belief in the moral justification for what they are doing.
Joseph Graves Jr
32:13
Fundamental question arises concerning the technology of killing; e.g. easier to kill w/o consequence with projectile weapons compared to hand to hand weapon fighting.
Yaochi Li
38:44
Where did you guys do the research again?
Adam Hunt
39:30
The Turkana, in Northwest Kenya
Yaochi Li
40:43
Thank you.
Joseph Graves Jr
41:33
Lots of questions arise here concerning evolutionary explanations of PTSD here. First how long has this situation existed for these groups? Are they using ancient evolved mechanisms to adapt to stress resulting from warfare, or are these responses novel to the current situation? How would you test ancient versus novel responses? Also how do you test that any of the PTSD responses adaptive? Do those with highest PTSD have > fitness, or is an intermediate level best for fitness, or is low level more likely to lead to death?
Prerna Ambrish
43:17
Is there any research on PTSD or C-PTSD not caused by combat (eg. abuse)?
Joseph Graves Jr
43:54
There is considerable research on PTSD related to child abuse and sexual assault.
Melissa Franklin
43:57
https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/aces/about.html
Prerna Ambrish
44:06
Thank you!
Asha Barnes
45:11
Is there related research on PTSD and gang activity/membership? I would imagine that there would be some similarities.
Adam Hunt
45:12
Interestingly does imply the depressive symptoms are a product of mismatch
Calen Ryan
46:02
I’d be curious to what extent the perceived evenness of the match is a factor for a moral injury? In other words, if you are at war with an opponent with similar material, personnel, and technological assets, do you feel more morally comfortable than if you are in a more obviously asymmetrical war? Or does the added dehumanization that often accompanies asymmetrical warfare reduce moral injury?
Adam Hunt
46:17
Has some kind of implication for treating depressive symptoms in PTSD in American/WEIRD soldiers....
Yaochi Li
50:45
So basically, as a part of army they are allowed to kill other people?
Joseph Graves Jr
51:36
Somehow I am left wondering what the evolutionary explanation for PTSD (adaptive value) from this presentation? Also why are the Turkana a better group to study than Israeli fighter pilots or Hamas rocket fighters?
Meredith Spence Beaulieu, PhD (she/her/hers)
51:50
We’ll be opening up for discussion soon! Feel free to virtually raise your hand at any point to join the question queue. (Click “Reactions” at the bottom of your screen, then “Raise Hand.”)
Adam Hunt
52:16
Maybe I missed this - were there control groups comparing base rates of depressive symptoms between general American/Turkana populations without PTSD? Perhaps the depression is simply a Western phenomenon overlapping with PTSD in these cases?
Terence Taylor
52:51
From your work do you think that there is a difference in impact on individuals living in continuous likelihood of armed conflict (like the Turkana) and those, for example, of soldiers sent for a defined period into conflict with the prospect of returning to a normal society with a ;ow likelihood of conflict.
Paul Leslie
54:09
Thanks for the talk! I was part of a long-term research project (the South Turkana Ecosystem Project) in Turkana during the 1980s and ‘90s. The images induced lots of memories, including of the stress experienced by the families we worked with (and by some of the researchers, for that matter).
Anishka Bandara
54:19
^Adding onto this, I was curious to know if you think that there would be a difference in impact between voluntary participants in such conflicts versus involuntary participants. And if so, would something like moral conflict or social risk be responsible for such differences?
Rui P B Diogo
56:47
Why would all the diseases or medical conditions be adaptive, that makes no sense at all
Adam Hunt
57:27
Many evolutionary psychology experiments don't measure reproductive success (takes too many generations etc) - often universality is taken as evidence
Rui P B Diogo
58:56
Evolutionary medicine needs to go out of that dogmatic ultra-adaptationist view of the 1970s, once for all.. in evo-devo, etc, that view of evolution is no longer accepted, at all..
Melissa Franklin
59:07
Does PTSD increase sympathetic response time in general, even other areas? That might be argued adaptable.
Melissa Franklin
59:15
Sorry decrease reaction time
Ricky Ma
59:39
what was the functional or adaptive reasoning given for ptsd?
David Pietraszewski
01:00:08
design evidence….
Mark Collard
01:02:04
Rui makes a good point.
Joseph Graves Jr
01:05:15
“Moral sphere” and “Western Culture” seems to be an oxymoron.
Mark Collard
01:11:59
Re: Joseph’s point, have the authors looked at associations between the PTSD symptoms and assessments of formidability, preference as partners in cooperative activities, or attractiveness as mates?
Calen Ryan
01:14:03
Makes me wonder to what extent “haunting” is a culturally-specific view that might speak to PTSD.
Joseph Graves Jr
01:14:35
The similarity of response in all humans does not mean that PTSD has an adaptive explanation. The response could have resulted from underlying traits that had nothing to do with PTSD.
Meredith Spence Beaulieu, PhD (she/her/hers)
01:15:17
Yes, chat will be saved!
Adam Hunt
01:15:27
It's at least consistent with an adaptive result - it could have been falsified by finding no relation
Anishka Bandara
01:15:29
Thank you for this discussion!
Meredith Spence Beaulieu, PhD (she/her/hers)
01:15:32
It’s included in the recording link that will be emailed to all registrants.
Mark Collard
01:15:38
Thanks everyone!
Yaochi Li
01:15:58
Thank you!
Robert Schopler
01:16:18
Interesting subject and questions
Rob Sica
01:16:21
Many thanks for fascinating presentation and discussion.
Matt Snider
01:16:37
Do you think the issues of Moral injury would be different in the Turkana villages that are further south, along the Maasai/Samburu borders which are heavily populated by Turkana violence widows that moved there after the violence spike in the Turkana north in the 1980s?
Adam Hunt
01:16:38
Great paper and presentation, thanks guys!
Manasa Vejalla
01:16:38
Thank you!
Gillian Pepper
01:16:39
Thank you!