Club EvMed: Alzheimer’s Disease: a case of evolutionary mismatch? - Shared screen with speaker view
Charles Nunn
Joseph Graves Jr
Yeah, I am suffering from the pathological cognitive decline…
Charles Nunn
The review article: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1568163718301181
Charles Nunn
EMPH paper just mentioned: https://academic.oup.com/emph/article/2013/1/173/1861845
Michelle Blyth
In HIV, there are decreases in all cd4s including tregs. HIV dementia is certainly seen but I don't recall an increase in Alzheimer's in these patients. Would you expect these patients to have increased risk of Alzheimer's?
Joseph Graves Jr
Does British and California women mean “women of European descent” living in those places; or is that a sample of all women living in those places?
Barnett Mennen
Please don't think me rude, but I must leave. Great presentation!
Daniela Tejada-Martinez
If estrogen is neuroprotective, why is being a woman a risk factor for AD as compared to being a man?
Richard Katz
progesterone is neuroprotective and would be up in pfregnancy
Nic Thompson Gonzalez
Would be super interesting to test how time in first trimester influences risk of autoimmune diseases, most of which are much earlier onset than AD
Christine Garver-Apgar
If a lack of Treg is associated with both miscarriage and Alzheimers, would you expect that women who suffer more miscarriages are also at greater risk for Alzheimers?
Mel Franklin
Great Question, Christine! I was wondering the same thing. Also, perhaps I missed it - was a later age of menopause looked at? One would expect a protective effect on AD if estrogen and not so much, progesterone, were driving the protective effects of months pregnant
Marianne Barrier
How do the levels of Estrogen and Progesterone in hormone replacement therapy/birth control compare to the levels during pregnancy?
Mel Franklin
@Marianne, ditto
Richard Katz
Meredith Spence Beaulieu
So many great questions in the chat! We’ll be opening up for discussion soon. Feel free to virtually raise your hand to join the queue. (Click “Reactions” at the bottom of your screen, then “Raise hand”)
Joanne Matott
It is possible that cyclical periods of high estrogen alternated with low estrogen may be optimal.
Jay Labov
Given the information presented about the possible relationship between changes in microbial communities in post-industrial societies and AD, would it be helpful to think about the etiology and treatment of AD as an autoimmune disease?
Furkan Gediklioglu
Are there studies conducted with the same approaches to other autoimmune diseases? For example, are women more at risk for other autoimmune diseases?
Nic Thompson Gonzalez
Curious about that too Furkan
Nic Thompson Gonzalez
Yes, they are
Mel Franklin
It is interesting that, overall, the energetics of ovarian cycling and constantly shedding and regrowing a microbe-free uterine lining (as well as dealing with health hits, pollution, social isolation) can actually be paused or even ‘undone’ by hormones that divert bodily resources to offspring. A nice illustration that reproductive success and somatic maintenance are far more aligned in a female body than a male’s.
Charles Nunn
Great questions in the chat… we’d love to hear you ask your question if you are interested in doing so! Please raise hand. Or new questions.
Marie Yeh
Is depression actually the only factor predicting Alzheimer’s? Women who have more pregnancies generally have more stable marriages and are happier than those who do not have a pregnancy or fewer.
Calen Ryan
Although women with multiple miscarriages may have higher risk for AD for the same, underlying reasons.
Mats Humble
Concerning microbiota and Alzheimer's disease, interesting data have emerged on pathogens associated with parodontitis, in particular Porphyromonas gingivalis. Is this an additional mismatch candidate?
Joe Alcock
Re: periodontitis, Tsimane women have more dental caries than men (Matt Schwartz’ work), but periodontitis is typically more prevalent in men
Meredith Spence Beaulieu
Probably time for 1-2 more questions!
James Gibb
Considering that both number of menstrual cycle (e.g. sexual minority women have an early age of menarche) and pregnancies (e.g. lesbian women in particular have significantly lower number of pregnancies, while bisexual women have similar number of pregnancies to heterosexual women) can vary quite significantly across different sexual orientations, while prevalence depression is generally quite high among SM women, what might we expect the prevalence of AD across sexual orientation groups?
James Gibb
what might we expect the prevalence of AD across sexual orientation groups to be like?***
Ajit Varki
FYIA274. Khan, N., Kim, S.K., Gagneux, P., Dugan, L.L., and Varki, A. Maximum reproductive lifespan correlates with CD33rSIGLEC gene number: Implications for NADPH oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species in aging. FASEB J. 34(2):1928-38. 2019. Supplemental MaterialsSee Table 1 and Figure 3A236. Schwarz, F., Springer, S., Altheide, T., Varki, N., Gagneux, P., and Varki, A. Human-specific Derived Alleles of CD33 and Other Genes Protect Against Post-Reproductive Cognitive Decline. Proc. Nat'l. Acad. Sci. USA doi: 10.1073/pnas.1517951112. 2015.  UCSD Press ReleaseB173. Springer, S.A., Schwarz, F., Altheide, T.K., Varki, N.M., Varki, A., Gagneux, P. Reply to Liu and Jiang: Maintenance of post reproductive cognitive capacity by inclusive fitness. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 113, 12, E1591-2. DOI=10.1073/pnas.1601419113. 2016.
Wiktoria Leks
When Junk DNA is opened for pregnancy in females can this impact estrogen levels regulated or it’s own impact on immune system
Joe Alcock
Really provocative stuff, Molly. Thanks
Amy Boddy
Great talk Molly! Thank you!
Marianne Barrier
Very interesting. Thanks!
Furkan Gediklioglu
Thank you!
Zaneta Thayer
Great talk Molly!
Nic Thompson Gonzalez
Thanks Molly!