Club EvMed: Pathogen selection for HLA gene diversity and its consequences for autoimmunity and cancer immunotherapy - Shared screen with speaker view
Bernie Crespi
Is there evidence of selection on that chromosome 3 Neanderthal-covid haplotype?
Sudhindra Gadagkar
Could this (auto-immunity) be an explanation for the limited number of HLA genes?
Joseph Graves Jr
A trade-off theory would explain that.
Charlie Nunn
Great to see so many people, thanks for joining. Please start posting questions, perspectives or comments in the Chat Box! We will open for discussion when Tobias finishes his presentation.
Randy Nesse
Do HLA heterozygous and homozygous individual perhaps differ in thymus function?
Bernie Crespi
Patients with more divergent HLA alleles also ought to *get cancer less, if they have better immunosurveillance?
Meredith Spence Beaulieu, Ph.D.
Feel free to virtually raise your hand with any questions!
Joseph Graves Jr
If greater surveillance leads to greater inflammatory response this trade-off would mitigate against HLA diversity reducing cancer rates.
Vance Fowler
One distinct feature of many pathogens is their acute, profound selection on an individual in a relatively short period of time (e.g., smallpox, plague, etc). How would the host pathogen selective interaction differ in the setting of organisms that are BOTH pathogen and commensal, for example, Staphylococcus aureus?
Chin Yee Tan
With the exception of certain childhood cancers, the temporality of autoimmune disease (typically presenting earlier in life) vs cancers (presenting later in life) may also affect fitness tradeoffs of having increased HLA diversity
Allan Kugel
It seems to me that some varients might be much more prone to causing autoimmunity problems than others, unless environmental factors are important in which matches are expressed.
Joseph Graves Jr
Generally HLA diversity follows human diversity, older populations (Africans) have more diversity, and younger populations due to bottlenecks have less.
Joseph Graves Jr
Also some of those younger populations are in the tropics, and have less HLA diversity, so I doubt its as simple as tropic v. temperate zone.
Jessica Norcott
Have to dash to another meeting, however, thank you so much for the presentation Dr. Lenz and useful discusssion!
Joseph Graves Jr
Almost every microbiome member can be pathogenic if it gets into the wrong place - even with or without pathogenic islands.
Daniel Bolnick
To what extent might we be thinking about MHC evolution incorrectly if it plays a stronger role in regulating tolerance for beneficial microbes?